Izmir
Izmir is a metropolitan city in the western extremity of Turkey and the third most populous city in Turkey, after Istanbul and Izmir. Once the ancient city of Smyrna, İzmir is now a modern, developed, and busy commercial center, set around a huge bay and surrounded by mountains. The broad boulevards, glass-fronted buildings and modern shopping centers are dotted with traditional red-tiled roofs, the 18th century market, and old mosques and churches, although the city has an atmosphere more of Mediterranean Europe than traditional Turkey.

İzmir owes its position as an economically and socially dynamic city to its location, climate and the fact that it has been a home to many different cultures and religions. Persians, Ancient Greeks, Assyrians, Romans, Byzantines and Ottomans are just a few of the dozens of different civilizations that the city has hosted throughout its long history. Lying on an advantageous location at the head of a gulf running down in a deep indentation, midway on the western Anatolian coast, it has been one of the principal mercantile cities of the Mediterranean Sea for much of its history. Izmir hosted the Mediterranean Games in 1971 and the World University Games in 2005.
In classical antiquity the city was known as Smyrna. Izmir has almost 4,000 years of recorded urban history and possibly even longer as an advanced human settlement. Set in an advantageous location at the head of a gulf in a deep indentation midway along the western Anatolian coast, the city has been one of the principal mercantile cities of the Mediterranean Sea for much of its history. Its port is Turkey's primary port for exports in terms of the freight handled and its free zone, a Turkish-U.S. joint-venture established in 1990, is the leader among the twenty in Turkey.
Highlights of Izmir 
The prominent information, districts and other attractions in and around Izmir are listed below in alphabetical order
AGORA: Revealed in central Izmir during excavations carried out in 1932-1941 in the district of Namazgah. eovering an area of 120 x 80 m, the agora throws invaluable light on Roman period Izmir. it was not only a market place, but the location of public institutions and the Temple of Zeus. The agora is open to the public between 9.00 -12.00 and 13.00 -18.00. The statues found here are on exhibit in Izmir Archaeological Museum.
ALSANCAK: A select neighborhood with a unique character in modern Izmir. Stretching from the waterfront esplanade inland most of the area has been transformed into a pedestrian precinct, so there is no traffic to disturb shoppers and strollers. The streets lined by modern buildings and attractive shops lead onto the square where Alsancak station stands. Dating from 1858 the colonial architecture of the station distinguishes it in style from the rest of the city. Trains to Buca, Aydin and Denizli depart from here.
ANGLICAN CHURCH : This church was built in 1835 by Levantines of English extraction living in Buca. The church is famous for its wood carving, beautiful stained glass windows and huge organ.
ASANSOR(Elevator): The city's famous public elevator, and a symbol of Izmir. This elevator links Mithatpasa street below with Halil Rifat Pasa street at the summit of the precipitous hill. It was built in 1907 and restored by the municipality in 1993. The upper terrace has a breathtaking view over the city and the bay. Here there is an Open-air cafe, a restaurant and a Genoese tavern.
BALCOVA: This spa is on the outskirts of Izmir on the road to Urla and Çesme. Turn left at Inciralti crossroads to reach Balçova thermal springs one kilometer down the road. Known as the Agamemnon Springs in antiquity, this may have been the first hydrotherapy center of the ancient world. Today there are modern facilities for visitors to the hot springs and luxury hotels. The temperature of the water is 63 degrees C.
BARLAR SOKAGI: Street of Bars. 
Some of the attractive old houses under conservation order in Alsancak now house bars and restaurants.
BASMANE: In this district are Izmir's old fashioned shopping streets, the park where the famous Izmir Fair is held each summer, and Basmane station. The trains to Manisa, and suburban rail buses to Bornova and other destinations leave from this station.
BORNOVA: A suburb of Izmir, Bornova was the hub of the Levantine community in the late l9th and 20th centuries. Today it houses the campus of Ege University. The Izmir-Manisa road passes through Bornova, which is linked to the city center by a 7 km railway line.
BUCA: Once Izmir's summer resort, Buca is today part of the city. With a population of 200000 in 1990, Buca is today a commercial and university district. The British Levantine merchants who ran businesses in Izmir from the late l8th century onward s built imposing mansions here. Not until the 1950s did Buca undergo radical change as various institutions moved into the mansions, whose extensive gardens are under conservation.
CLIMATE: Typical Mediterranean climate, with hot dry summers and warm wet winters. The average temperature is 18 degrees C. Snowfall is extremely rare, and approximately 148 days of the year are clear and sunny .
CLOCK TOWER:Another symbol of the city, this picturesque clock tower in Konak Meydan was built in 1901 to commemorate the 25th anniversary of Abduhamit II's accession to the throne. The clock itself was a gift of Emperor Wilhelm II of Germany. The 25 m high tower is currently being restored.
CESME: This popular and attractive resort west of Izmir is famous for its modern hotels, sparkling clean sea and wonderful sandy beaches.
EPHESUS: An ancient city three km from the town of Selcuk south of Izmir. During both the Hellenistic and Roman periods Ephesus was the most important port and cultural center of the eastern world. The remains of the city are still spellbinding today. The magnificent temples, public buildings, villas and streets of Ephesus have been excavated and restored by the Austrian Archaeological Institute, and it requires little effort to imagine the city as it was in its heyday.
FOCA: A picturesque fishing town 50 km north of Izmir. A magnet for holiday makers during summer today, Foca was an important Ionian town in antiquity. The Phokaians were famed for their commercial prowess, courage and seamanship. They established trading colonies at distant ports, and were the founders of the French port of Marseilles (the ancient Massalia).
HISAR MOSQUE: The city's most magnificent mosque in the district of Hisar next to Kemeralti office complex. The mosque was built by Yakup Bey in 1592. It is roofed by a large dome resting on eight piers, and noted for the decoration on the altar niche and pulpit.
HOUSE OF THE VIRGIN MARY: This holy Christian shrine on Mt.Bulbul between Selcuk and Ephesus was sanctified by Pope Paul VI in 1967, after the Vatican confirmed that the Virgin Mary had spent the last years of her life here. Numerous travel agencies in Izmir organize day tours to the House of the Virgin Mary and Ephesus.
IZMIR FAIR: Since I932 this international trade fair has been the highlight of the summer season in Izmir. From late August to early September the fair doubles as a popular festival of music and stage events in the Culture Park.
KADIFEKALE: Velvet Castle, to be literal. This 4th century BC castle commands a bird's eye view of Izmir and is th perfect place to watch the sun set over the city.
KARSIYAKA: The name of this district of Izmir on the north shore off Izmir Bay means "opposite shore", as indeed it is. The inhabitants of this pleasant residential area with its Own esplanade claim an identity distinct from the rest of the city. In their view, Karsiyaka is a town in its own right with an individual culture and history.
KEMERALTI: The old fashioned shopping district of Izmir, consisting of narrow streets winding their way from Konak towards central Izmir around Anafartalar Caddesi. Here you can find jewelers, drapers, shoemaker, and shops specializing in all kind s of goods from leather to olives and cheese. The atmosphere of an earlier century still pervades the buildings here, with their distinctive 19th century doorways and roof tiles.
KORDON: The famous esplanade between Konak Meydan and Alsancak is packed with promenades on weekends and fine evenings. As families and young lovers hand in hand stroll along the waterfront, horse-drawn phaetons with colourful ponpons swinging from the harnesses es trot past, and cars cruise by.
PASAPORT: (Not a printing error, but the Turkish for "passport). The name for the dock and pier between Konak and Cumhuriyet Meydan. Pasasaport Dock was built in 1876. The dock building is in the Turkish revival style inspired by Ottoman and Selcuk architecture which was popular in the 1920s and 1930s. Until not so long ago the area was full of old fashioned coffee houses which served waterpipes as well as tea and coffee, but today pubs have supplanted most of them.
PERGAMUM: The remains of this magnificent ancient city are situated north of Imir. Founded in the early 3rd century BC, Pergamum was the most powerful and extensive kingdom of Western Anatolia throughout the Hellenistic period. Parchment is thought to have been invented here. On the hill which rises steeply in the center of Pergamum is the Acropolis and the world's steepest amphitheatre with seating for 16,000 people. The remains of temples Of Athena and Dionysus. The splendid altar of Zeus at the entrance of the Acropolis was taken to Berlin Museum by Carl Humann in 1871. A fligth of 20 steps leads up to this remarkable structure, which dwarfs the room at Berlin Museum, as it awaits expectantly the day when it will be released from confinement and return to its hilltop site in Pergamum. The ruins of the Asclepion on the plain below reveal almost all the original features as a result of the excavations. Named after the god of medicine Asclepios, this complex was one of the foremost health centers of the ancient world.
SELCUK: A town in the foothills of the Aydin mountains 94 km south of Izmir. SeIcuk is the site of Ephesus Museum, a magnificent castle and the 6th century Basilica of St.John. The road to the resorts of Marmaris and Bodrum passes through Selcuk, w hile Kusadasi, port of call for many yachts and cruise liners, is just a twenty minute drive to the north.
SMYRNA: The ancient name for Izmir and the heroic Amazon who founded the city according to Herodotus and Strabon.
TEOS: The ruins of Teos are set amidst olive groves at one end of Sigacik harbor near Seferihisar, famous for its beaches and thermal springs. Thales relates that Teos was selected as capital of the league of twelve Ionian cities in the 7th century BC. The largest temple of Dionysus ever built in Teos.
TEPEKULE: Excavations at Tepekule in the district of Bayrakli have thrown light on Izmir's early history. Izmir was originally a settlement of the Aeolians, who were contemporaries of the first Trojans, and dates back to the third milenium BC. The c ity was subsequently occupied by the Ionians, and the Lydian King Alyattes conquered the region in 600 BC, razing Izmir's temples and houses. Today the ruins of the Temple of Athena and houses can be seen at Tepekule.
URLA: Urla is a resort 42 km from Izmir on the road to Cesme. Izmirians spend their summers and weekends here, the site of the ancient Ionian city of Klazomenai. This city was the birthplace of the illustrious philosopher Anaxogoras, and is latterly also famous for a local pastry dish "katmer" and for its meat and fish restaurants.
Alsancak

As a notional zone, Alsancak extends from along the tip of the southern shores of the Gulf of İzmir, starting near İzmir's historic square that carries the same name as the district (Konak Square) with the 19th century-built Pasaport Quay marking the point, and extending along a 3200-meter-long seaside street and promenade called "Kordon" (esplanade, or more specifically as Birinci Kordon, Turkish: Birinci Kordon) and to join the neighboring metropolitan district of Bornova, located eastwards and at the very end of the Gulf's waters. Within this larger and notional zone of Alsancak, aside from the officially instituted and delimited quarter (mahalle) of Alsancak proper, the five neighbouring quarters of Umurbey, Kültür, Mimar Sinan, İsmet Kaptan and Akdeniz are found along the shore, and the whole is generally referred to as being part of the same complex.
In Ottoman times, the area was named "La Punta" (an Italian word meaning "the cape" the name cited as La Pointe in French sources or in sources that borrow from them) and was the part of the city where the upper middle class was concentrated.
Physical aspects 
Two large streets parallel to the coastline, named the First Kordon and the Second Kordon, constitute the main arterial roads of the quarter. A level area situated in an alluvial plain, with well-designed streets, modern apartment blocks and stores, the city's trendiest and the most expensive and exclusive residences and commercial space are found here, as well as the busiest office buildings, including consulates.
Two major hotels in partnership with international brand names of the industry, Swissôtel and Hilton, are located towards the Konak end of the area, just behind the Square of the Republic (Turkish: Cumhuriyet Meydanı) distinguishable by the wide space with which it marks a point along the length of the esplanade and an equestrian statue of Atatürk, to whose honor a museum in the premises of a former mansion is also present towards the eastern end of Alsancak.
The Atatürk Museum building, which is a survivor of the transformation in recent decades of coastline residences from terraced double-storey houses to apartment blocks, also offers visitors a chance to have a glimpse of how the lives of the wealthy in 19th century İzmir was like.
Many restaurants, bars, cafes, discothèques and other entertainment venues are concentrated in Alsancak, increasingly within the intact rows of older and more traditional one- or two-storied buildings found in the inner smaller streets and are often restored specifically for the purpose of the intended commercial activity.
Kültürpark, the distinct location of the İzmir International Fair, is also englobed by the area of the quarter of Alsancak in both administrative and practical terms. The newest and the most attended synagogue of İzmir, "Shar Hashamayim" is also in Alsancak where increasing numbers of the city's remaining Jews opt to live, moving in from their traditional neighborhood of Karataş. The Port of İzmir, İzmir Alsancak Stadium and Alsancak Railway Station are also located in Alsancak.
ALSANCAK: A select neighborhood with a unique character in modern Izmir. Stretching from the waterfront esplanade inland most of the area has been transformed into a pedestrian precinct, so there is no traffic to disturb shoppers and strollers. The streets lined by modern buildings and attractive shops lead onto the square where Alsancak station stands. Dating from 1858 the colonial architecture of the station distinguishes it in style from the rest of the city. Trains to Buca, Aydin and Denizli depart from here.
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